Personality Types According to Erich Fromm

… are you smiling? Hope kills?

Personality is a complex concept that we use frequently in our daily life, that we think about while shaping our relationships with people, that includes the individual’s interests, attitudes, abilities, speaking style, appearance and the way he adapts to his environment. Personality is a field of study on which psychologists have defined the individual’s unique and distinctive behaviors and developed theories for many years. According to them, it is the differences in the characteristics of the individual to think, feel, behave and relate to people. In other words, a person’s separation according to himself, the state of having a distinctive feature; It is the totality of individual characteristics. Although it includes some innate tendencies, it is a condition that is shaped by life experiences as a result of social effects and interactions with people around. At this point, it can be said that both the family, the formal education process and the social environment are important factors in shaping the personality. Although it is thought that each individual has a unique personality, personality types have been tried to be determined by making various groupings as the science of psychology has developed.

When we look at this issue, it is seen that many theories have emerged over time. Many people such as Jung, Carl Rogers, Cattell, McCrae are leading names who have developed their own theories about personality. Each way of thinking or psychiatrist has constructed his own personal definition of personality according to his own model of theory. The Art of Loving, Virtue and Happiness, On Being Human, The Origins of Human Destruction, etc. At this point, personality types put forward by Erich Fromm, who works to understand people with many essay-type articles, which we know with his books, are interesting at this point. The approach that Freud and Marx put forward by basing their ideas on humanist philosophy is still up-to-date today 😊

Fromm’s theory talks about 5 personality types that people have. According to him, only one of these personality types can achieve emotional and personal independence, while the others represent the more selfish, materialistic and unproductive part of society 😊

The first type in Fromm’s theory of personality: “Receptive Type”

The recipient type is defined by the constant need for approval, acceptance, and support from other individuals. The most surprising thing about this personality profile is that he usually doesn’t give back the support he receives😊 These people have no intention of adding something to other people’s lives or showing kindness to help others. Helping others and improving their lives is definitely not for them. They just take 😊 They avoid giving because they see giving as giving up something, being deprived of that thing. They also try to relieve their mental depression by eating. If there are people who always call me, always me, these are examples of the receptive personality type in your environment 😊

The second is the “Exploitative Type”… Again, this is a personality type that establishes relationships with others based entirely on selfish interests. What is different from the receptive type is that they try to get what they want in cunning and deceitful ways. They tend to lie, deceive and manipulate others to get what they need. In this respect, no moral values ​​more important than their own interests bind them. They do this for their own benefit so that they can take advantage of the other person. While individuals with exploitative tendencies spend their lives exploiting others, they also believe that they have a right. Self-centred, sneaky and cynical people we see around us can be recognized as exploitative types 😊

Thirdly, Fromm talks about the hoarder or “hoarder type” personality. Here, the individual is a collector, the only purpose of such people is to have and accumulate something of material and moral value. People who are passionate about tangible assets, focused on things, and obsessed with acquiring property are defined as hoarders. They tend to hoard and hide everything to protect themselves; more things, more money… The feeling of poverty can never be transformed into a feeling of existence😊 They think that the more they have, the more secure and happy they will feel, but they cannot fully capture this trust, always with a sense of lack. They are also extremely meticulous, organized and punctual. They use time very carefully, seeing it as an accumulation. In any case, while they argue that saving brings personal satisfaction and is important for the future, this dissatisfaction never makes them happy enough. Erich Fromm also describes these types as insecure. People who are seen as stingy in society are usually hoarder types 😊

The other is the “Marketing Type”… Erich Fromm says that this personality type is the most common people in business environments😊 This type of individuals constantly show themselves marketing behavior to be successful and they need the approval of others very much, he says. “People are striving to be more desirable, to make themselves attractive, and to be in a better position than their competitors, rather than striving to ensure their own lives and happiness.” Such people are unhappy in themselves, because they care so much about popularity, they feel inadequate and helpless when they fail. They always try to show themselves differently in order to look good in the environment and to be accepted by people, and they are in conflict in their inner world due to the dilemmas they experience in their personality. This situation easily leads to depression. They are manipulative and think that every way is permissible to reach their goals. In addition, because they think that the people around them are like themselves, their relationships are not sincere, they often tend to be opportunistic and easily ignore beliefs and values. According to Fromm, the personality tendency that most harms the independence principle is the marketing personality type. At this point, the personality type that we encounter in every field today is perhaps the marketing personality. The better I can introduce myself and be popular, the better I market myself, the more successful I am.

And finally the “Efficient Type”…

The productive type devotes all his attention to being a helpful person to others. It is the only personality type that is positive compared to the other four personality types. He loves people, is creative, produces and his most important aim is to be useful. Their imagination is wide, their energies are high, their most important features are to love and work. It focuses on building loving, nurturing and meaningful relationships with other people. According to Fromm, the main purpose of those with productive personality type is to try to be human. He says that productive personality types who deal with negative emotions and care about mutual benefit in their relationships with people are the ones who will save the world. Although it may seem difficult to change a person’s character and personality because they are deeply entrenched, it is also a fact that a person can see his own shortcomings with his own self-awareness and can change them by going over them. At this point, Fromm insists that we should be aware of our tendencies and attitudes and change ourselves to the productive personality type.

In summary, Fromm motivates us to pay more attention to our personal development with this theory. Recognizing our shortcomings, it invites us to turn to the productive personality type. He aims for social improvement because he believes that people who invest in their own development, self-esteem and independence can develop others in the same direction. I hope we all evolve towards productive personality structure. We can act holistically by accepting and loving our own selves, reflecting ourselves correctly on the environment and sharing more of the things we produce. Giving, not always taking, makes one peaceful. We can achieve emotional satisfaction only when we are more beneficial to the environment. Real satisfaction is not to be known more, but to be more productive even in the smallest space.

Everyone has a side where they can do their best and be useful to someone, the important thing is to re-examine the criteria of success and develop our side that will reveal the qualities of love-respect, creativity and humility 😊

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Malia Bartek
Malia is an Associate Editor at mebhocam english and loves contributing to this thriving online community.

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